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Charsadda

Charsadda‎ about this sound pronounce (help info), About this sound pronounce (help info) is a town and headquarters of Charsadda District, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.[2] It is the eighty fifth-largest city of Pakistan, according to 2017 census. Located in the Valley of Peshawar, Charsadda lies about 29 kilometres (18 mi) from the provincial capital of Peshawar at an altitude of 276 metres (906 ft). The total area of Charsadda District measures about 996 square Km. The district is geographically organized into two primary parts Hashtnagar (Pashto Ashnaghar) and Do Aaba (Pashto: Duaba). The city hosts the ruins of what was once the ancient Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati (meaning Lotus City in Sanskrit), and home of the Sanskrit grammarian Paṇini.

History

The earliest archaeological deposits recovered at Charsadda, in Bala Hisar, are dated to ca. 1400 BCE, when a small community was established on a low natural mound of clay above the floodplain of the Kabul and Swat rivers, constructing structures of timber posts slotted into postholes, in association with ceramic sherds and ash. Subsequent periods indicate that more permanent structures were built at Charsadda, including stone-lined pits. Between the 14th century BCE and the 6th century BCE, when an Achaemenid presence is represented at the site (see below), the inhabitants of Charsadda developed an iron-working industry and used ceramics that are typical for this period in the Vale of Peshawar, Swat and Dir.

The later history of Charsadda can be traced back to the 6th century BCE. It was the capital of Gandhara from the 6th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. The ancient name of Charsadda was Pushkalavati. It was the administrative centre of the Gandhara kingdom. Many invaders have ruled over this region during different times of history. These include the Durrani Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonians, the Mauryas, the Greco-Bactrians, the Indo-Greeks, the Indo-Scythians, the Indo-Parthians, the Kushans, the Huns, the Turks, the Guptas.